Z: Why vis?

Publication: S. M. Kosslyn [1989]: Understanding Charts and Graphs doi:10.1002/acp.2350030302

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Title Understanding Charts and Graphs
Authors
  1. Kosslyn, Stephen Michael
Year 1989
DOI 10.1002/acp.2350030302
ISBN ---
@article{Kosslyn1989,
 title = {Understanding Charts and Graphs},
 author = {Kosslyn, Stephen Michael},
 year = {1989},
 doi = {10.1002/acp.2350030302},
 journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
 pages = {185--226},
 volume = {3}
}

Last updated 11 months, 1 week ago (Nov. 18, 2020) by Streeb, Dirk

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Context disambiguates (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences p. 197 «We cannot distinguish between a violation and a flaw on the basis of the display alone; the distinction depends on knowing the purpose and context of the display (pragmatic considerations).» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Perception enhances visual structures (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences p. 191 «Fourth, stimuli are organized into coherent groups and units by the time we become aware of them. Much of this organization is ‘automatic’, not under voluntary control, and is determined by reasonably well-understood properties of stimuli (e. g. proximity of elements). The grouping imposed by these automatic processes must be respected if a chart or graph is to be seen the way a designer intends.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Symbols carry „cultural“ meaning (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more paragraphs p. 205 «The conventions of a reader’s culture should be obeyed when drawing an effective graphic display.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Symbols carry „cultural“ meaning (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences p. 185 «These displays necessarily use symbols, which are marks that are interpreted in accordance with convention.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations allow flexible notation (-) Negative One or more sentences p. 192 «Our requirement here is less stringent: given a symbol, there should be only one way to interpret it.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations are abstracted by limitations of perception (-) Negative One or more paragraphs p. 196 «That is, displays should not require readers to decompose perceptual units in order to extract specific information, as occurs if single points along a line must be interpreted.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations are ambiguous (-) Negative One or more sentences p. 185 «Because of the way the scheme was designed, it should be easily used to describe any unambiguous chart or graph in a straightforward way. When the system cannot be easily applied, this indicates that something is wrong.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations are ambiguous (--) Limiting negative One or more sentences p. 192 «In the ideal case a chart or graph will be absolutely unambiguous, with its intended interpretation being transparent. One way to think about this sort of unambiguity is in terms of mappings between symbols and concepts. If the display is treated as a complex symbol, then we want a unique mapping between it and one’s interpretation of it. Goodman (1968) has characterized systems that have the property of unique bidirectional mapping between a symbol and concept as being ‘notational’.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations are augmented with knowledge (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 191 «Once information in a display is in short-term memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory. That is, it can be compared against previously stored information and categorized. Once categorized, one knows more about the stimulus than is apparent in the input itself. Factors that affect this process affect our ability to extract meaning from the display.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations drive attention (+-) Ambivalent One or more paragraphs p. 196 «Partly because only a limited amount of information can be held in short-term memory at once, some marks will be given priority over others. The information conveyed by these marks should be central to the display’s message.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations drive attention (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences p. 191 «Third, some aspects of a stimulus are given priority over others; we pay attention first to abrupt changes of any sort (e.g. heavier marks, brighter colours).» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations help overcome cognitive biases (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 195 «For some purposes (e.g. conveying the general impression), it may be appropriate to alter marks intentionally to compensate for the distorting properties of the visual system» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations require experience and domain context (-) Negative One or more sentences p. 191f «Finally, in long-term memory the major constraint is a person’s knowledge. The way a display will be interpreted, both at the level of semantics and pragmatics, depends on which stored information is most closely associated with the way the stimulus properties of a display are categorized. If a person does not know the meaning of a word, or of a pattern of lines forming the framework of a display, he or she will have trouble associating the display with the correct stored information.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations re-represent structures (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 192 «Furthermore, knowledge of the task at hand can have important consequences: if the initial organization of the display does not help one to interpret the display, knowledge of the task can lead one to consciously reorganize the pattern, using information in long-term memory to reconstrue the stimulus—which in turn leads to a new attempt to interpret the pattern against other stored information.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visualizations show visual patterns (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 195 «In addition, good displays should make use of easily seen patterns, exploiting our ability to apprehend changes in slope, groupings and the like.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
Visual statements carry multiple meanings (+-) Ambivalent One or more paragraphs p. 195f «That is, marks vary along a number of dimensions, such as hue, size, height, and some of these dimensions cannot be processed independently of others.» Streeb, Dirk: July 9, 2020
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