Z: Why vis?

Publication: M. Hegarty [2011]: The Cognitive Science of Visual-Spatial Displays: Implications for Design doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01150.x

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Title The Cognitive Science of Visual-Spatial Displays: Implications for Design
Authors
  1. Hegarty, Mary
Year 2011
DOI 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01150.x
ISBN ---
@article{Hegarty2011,
 title = {The Cognitive Science of Visual-Spatial Displays: Implications for Design},
 author = {Hegarty, Mary},
 year = {2011},
 doi = {10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01150.x},
 journal = {Topics in Cognitive Science},
 number = {3},
 pages = {446--474},
 volume = {3}
}

Last updated 3 years, 5 months ago (Feb. 26, 2018) by Streeb, Dirk

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Perception enhances visual structures (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 447 «In the case of visual-spatial displays, specifically, there is much evidence that task performance can be dramatically different with different visual displays of the same information. This evidence argues for the importance of visual display design.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Perception infers abstract structures (+) Positive One or more paragraphs p. 451 «When nonvisual data are mapped onto visual variables, patterns often emerge that were not explicitly built in, but which are easily picked up by the visual system.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Space carries meaning (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 449 «Space and visual properties are used as metaphors for other properties or relations.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Symbols carry „cultural“ meaning (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 454 «It can capitalize on cultural conventions (e.g., higher is better; red signifies danger) so that the mapping between the display and its referent is more transparent.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Symbols carry meaning (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 449 «Space and visual properties are used as metaphors for other properties or relations.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations abstract structures (+) Positive One or more paragraphs p. 455 «Intuitions about animations are an example of a more general intuition that iconic displays should resemble their referents as much as possible, when in fact the power of visual spatial displays often comes from their ability to simplify and abstract from reality.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are animated (+-) Ambivalent One or more paragraphs p. 455 «However, in a review of several papers comparing animated to static displays, Tversky et al. (2002) indicated that there was no advantage to animations over static displays, making the point that animations are often ineffective because they are too fast or too complex.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are animated (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences pp. 446f «We now watch animations of developing weather patterns on the news every night…» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are augmented with knowledge (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 454 «Understanding a graphic can also include making further inferences based on domain knowledge or visual-spatial processes (comparison, mental rotation, etc.) so that the resulting internal representation comes to contain information that is not presented explicitly in the external display.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are discrete (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 453 «Similarly, one might use an interactive interface to filter information in a complex database so that only task-relevant information is displayed.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are open for interaction (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 449 «They also include interactive displays that allow the user to add or subtract variables displayed on a graph or map, rotate the display to view an object or three-dimensional data set from different perspectives, filter out task-irrelevant information, or zoom into a data set to view some aspect of the data in more detail» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are (partially) redundant (+-) Ambivalent One or more sentences p. 465 «effects of redundant coding in displaying the data (e.g., fill patterns for bars in bar graphs) were inconsistent and depended on the task and type of graph.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are specific (+) Positive One or more subsections sec. 6.1, pp. 462ff «We start with the meta-principle that there is no such thing as a ‘‘best’’ visual-spatial display, independent of the task to be carried out with this display.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations are specific (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 460 «…demonstrated that a less familiar graph (parametric graph) that is better tuned to the task requirements can be more effective than a more familiar type (function graph).» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations distort usefully (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences pp. 448f «Iconic displays can also distort reality. For example, many subway maps show the connectivity between subway stations while distorting the distance, and maps of the earth’s surface involve distortions because they project a three-dimensional entity on a two-dimensional space.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations do not require knowledge about rules of construction (?) Questioned One or more sentences p. 454 «This can include knowledge of the display conventions, such as the meaning of the x and y axes in a graph, which types of information are typically included in this type of display and which are omitted, which aspects of the display are to be taken literally (such as the relative length and configuration of roads on a road map) and which are not (such as the color and width).» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations drive attention (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 458 «Observing the eye fixations of more expert or more successful users of a display may also lead to the design of displays that direct less successful users’ attention to the task relevant information.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations drive attention (+-) Ambivalent One or more sentences p. 453 «…depends on attention, which might be directed by the viewer’s goals and expectations or what is salient in the display.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations emphasize parts (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 454 «For example, a display can be designed to make task-relevant information salient…» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations enable application of visuospatial skills to abstract domains (+) Positive One or more subsections sec. 3.3, pp. 451f «In addition to offloading storage, visual displays can allow the offloading of cognitive processes onto perceptual processes.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations externalize constraints (+) Positive One or more paragraphs p. 452 «Offloading cognition on perception also occurs when the right representation for a problem constrains possible inferences to those which are most valid» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations group information (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 450 «Grouping information that is related is a natural property of iconic displays.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations group information – objects (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 450 «However, relational displays often organize information such that the representations of related entities are close, facilitating search and integration.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations integrate views/data (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 449 «One type of complex display may show multiple related representations…» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations localize information (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 450 «Therefore, information that needs to be related in interpreting and making inferences from iconic displays is likely to be represented by visual features that are close in the display.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations provide a spatial index structure (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 450 «A second advantage of visual-spatial over sentential (language-like) representations is that they organize information by indexing it spatially.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visualizations show visual patterns (+) Positive One or more sentences p. 447 «…have developed around questions of how to best use new information technologies to reveal patterns in complex data sets.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
Visual statements show invisibles (*) Mentioned without valuation One or more sentences p. 449 «In these displays, visual and spatial properties represent entities and properties that are not necessarily visible or distributed over space.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
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(Visualizations emphasize parts --builds on-> Visualizations are animated) (*) Mentinoed One or more sentences p. 459 «They then redesigned the display to make the skin more visually salient by animating it, and thus improved problem solving with the display.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
(Visualizations support external memorization --builds on-> Visualizations are external physical entities) (*) Mentinoed One or more sentences p. 450 «First, all types of visual displays are external representations, and therefore store information externally, freeing up working memory resources for other aspects of thinking.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
(Visualizations are animated --is limited by-> Visualizations drive attention) (*) Mentinoed One or more sentences p. 455 «Realistic animations of a mechanical or biological system often show several different components moving at once, and critical phases often happen very quickly, but visual attention is limited, so it is not possible to encode and relate the movements of the components in the time available.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
(Visualizations are animated --is limited by-> Visual perception has high bandwidth) (*) Mentinoed One or more sentences p. 455 «Realistic animations of a mechanical or biological system often show several different components moving at once, and critical phases often happen very quickly, but visual attention is limited, so it is not possible to encode and relate the movements of the components in the time available.» Streeb, Dirk: March 2, 2018
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Streeb, Dirk March 2, 2018 June 6, 2018 28 4 7
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